1) Shahada – The basic declaration of faith: “I testify that there is only one God and Muhammad is his messenger.”
2) Salat – Prayer five times/day. Before sunrise (Fajr), noontime (Zuhr), afternoon (Asr), sunset (Maghrib), nighttime (Isha). It may not be a good excuse but I usually just can’t make all five though I try. I usually hit 2-3 times/day.
3) Zakat – Charity for orphans, the poor and indigent.
4) Sawm – Fasting during the Islamic month of Ramadan (30 days). No food, no drink, no sexual relations while the sun is up for the duration of the month. (4 missed days in 9 years!)
5) Haaj – A required pilgrimmage to Mecca at least once in a lifetime for those who are healthy enough and can afford it.